Building

Application in Building


Currently, in construction, there is one of the most pressing issues for both newly created and exploited for buildings and facilities - it is their insulation.

 

засыпка вермикулита

Applying swollen vermiculite, you can achieve a solution to this problem with considerable economic benefit.

 

Simultaneously with the decrease in the cost of heat conservation in buildings and structures are such problems as their fire protection and sound reflection and sound absorbing interior, as well as several other problematic issues that arise in the slum.

 

Swollen vermiculite is loose, lightweight, highly porous material, with the characteristic scaly structure and odorless.

 

The material has high thermal and sound insulation properties, non-toxic, is not subject to rotting and prevents the spread of mold. Unique to specifications - a temperature resistance, fire resistance, reflecting the ability, chemical inertness.

 

Vermiculite is clean and biostable material. At higher temperatures, arising from fires, do not emit any gases, which is an important advantage compared with other known materials of organic origin.

 

As international practice shows, vermiculite is very successfully used in construction, as fireproof insulation bulk. With a turnover of vermiculite fill voids of irregular shape.

 

A layer of vermiculite filling in 20 cm of thermal protection equivalent to a brick wall thickness of 1,5 m or 2 m-thick concrete wall.

A layer of vermiculite in the attic ceilings 5cm thick reduces heat loss by 75% and a thickness of 7.5 cm - at 85% and a thickness of 10 cm - at 92%.


Thermal conductivity of some materials

Material Thermal conductivity,W/ m²×K
Exfoliated vermiculite 0,04 – 0,062
Basalt canvas 0,04 – 0,062
Gravel Keramzite 0,12
Asbestos-cement board 0,13
Foam concrete 0,14 – 0,18
Hollow brick < 0,56
Solid Brick > 0,6
Brickwork 0,8
Concrete 1,45
Ferroconcrete 1,6

Vermiculite filling in wall constructions are used to protect the premises from over-heating and cooling, insulation cold rooms, vaults furnaces, for sound isolation chamber testing of aircraft and automobile engines, for sound absorption in cinemas and film studios, etc.

 

Along with vermiculite backfilling, construction effectively applied, dry mortars and mortars, which is vermiculite filler.

 

Compared with conventional (sand) Mortar vermiculite mortars because of the high porosity are 2-4 times smaller volume and weight is 4-6 times smaller than the coefficient of thermal conductivity and are a group of light ( "warm") solutions.

 

A layer of "warm" cement-vermiculite plaster thickness of 2.5 cm may replace a layer of cement-sand mortar in 10-15cm. When the thickness of the cement-vermiculite plaster layer up to 3 cm thick brick wall can be reduced by 25%.

 

Application of cement-vermiculite mortar on brick walls allows for economies of bricks in the amount of 0,25 m3 1m3 masonry, with a sound absorption coefficient of vermiculite plaster is 0,15-0,3 and ordinary sand plaster it is 0,015-0,02.

 

From this it follows that the use of "warm" plaster for facing surfaces of walls can provide significant economic benefits by reducing the thickness of the wall.

 

Vermiculite plaster solutions are used for interior and exterior building structures, and can perform, in addition to the increased thermal protection and sound absorbing features - fire-retardant, decorative, etc. They have been applied to the conventional design for plastering methods.

 

Optimum composition of solutions with vermiculite mixed with clay or lime as a fine plasticizing additives are compounds 1:2:6 - 1:3:8 (by volume - cement: clay (lime): vermiculite).

 

Mixtures of such compounds have relatively high plasticity and workability, and the solutions have a relatively small volume weight and sufficient porosity. The surface of the plaster is well suppressed; we obtain a smooth, without defects.


Composition and properties of vermiculite plaster solutions

Состав смеси по объему Expenses
1m³ solution
Dissolved
 Cement   Lime   Clay   Vermiculite    Water 
( L )
 Cement 
( kg )
 Volumetric weight 
( кg/m3 )
 Tensile strength
compressive 
( kg/cm2 )
1 2 - 6 1,4 185 586 8,1
1 3 - 8 1,4 125 581 6,7
1 - 2 6 1,4 185 650 10,3
1 - 3 8 1,4 135 624 8,1

Commonly used in the construction of thin-walled structures made of armocement, reinforced concrete, metal (vaults, shells, plates, trusses, etc.) in most cases have inadequate fire resistance.

 

Alternating heating and cooling of water in the structures under fire conditions leads to a sharp drop in their strength, large deformations, causing the collapse.

 

As shown by the test, samples of vermiculite solution with volume weight of 500 to 800 kg/ m³, heated to a temperature of 900-1000 ºC and placed in the water, do not crack and retain sufficient strength, while samples of cellular concrete under the same conditions completely destroyed.

 

Fire-retardant efficiency vermiculite solutions 4 times higher than the sand. Limit of fire resistance of roofs and ceilings, equal to 1,5 h, is provided with a layer thickness of vermiculite solution of 8 mm.

 

The effectiveness of vermiculite fireproof insulation solutions as indicated below the figures.


Flame some building insulation

Type of insulations Insulation Properties  Limit of fire resistance
 Volumetric weight 
( кg/m3 )
 Толщина 
( mm )
Cement slab 250-300 40 1 ч. 50 мин.
Cement slab with conventional plaster 250-300 50 2 ч. 35 мин.
Brick clay common 1750 120 5 ч. 25 мин.
Clay brick with conventional plaster 1750 120 6 ч.
The cement- vermiculite plaster 500 13 10 ч.


Armo concrete slabs 20 mm thick with a layer of vermiculite fireproofing solution of 13 mm have a limit of fire resistance of up to 10 hours.


Recommended composition retardants vermiculite plaster solutions

Composition volume
(cement:vermiculite)
Properties of vermiculite solution Thickness
( mm )
 Volumetric weight 
( кg/cm3 )
 Tensile strength ( кg/cm3
During compression When bending
1:4 500 12,5 8,2 13,5
1:6 450 16,8 11,5 31,2
1:7,5 400 10,8 7,8 13,4

For the above-mentioned vermiculite mortar cement brands used M-300 - M-400 and vermiculite fractions up to 2mm. Under these conditions, the thermal conductivity varies from 0,140 to 0,158 Kcal / m h. deg.

 

Preparation of vermiculite mortar mixture is produced in conventional mortar mixers forced mixing of materials (blade, screw).

 

Download materials into the mixer for vermiculite plaster solutions should be carried out in sequence. Initially, the dough is prepared from the binder, additives and water, and then it is loaded vermiculite.

 

This sequence of loading of materials gives a homogeneous mixture with minimal breakage of grains of vermiculite, and the process of " self vacuuming" mixture by pumping water out of the test vermiculite positive impact on the properties of hardened mortar.

 

In the construction of residential, public and industrial buildings widely used floor covering made of plastic, linoleum flooring, etc. These floors are usually arranged on a monolithic or prefabricated concrete floors or directly on the ground on a sandy bottom.

 

When the device such coatings for concrete base floors due to the high thermal conductivity and heat absorption concrete requires an intermediate layer (base) of small heat-conducting material.The latter should have a coefficient of heat absorption is not more than 5 kcal / m h deg, compressive strength of not less than 40 kg / cm², to ensure reliable soundproofing floors, and in case of use in the ceiling above the basement - a proper heat protection.

 

These requirements are fully met the cement-sand-vermiculite mortars.


Composition and properties of cement-sand-vermiculite solutions

The composition of the mixture by volume Consumption cement
кg/1m3 solution
Свойства раствора Koef.
Heat absorption
Ккаl/m2.h.degree
Cement : Filling Ce-
ment
Sand Ver-
micu-
lite
ρ
Кg/m33
Rсж
Кg/сm2
λ
Ккаl/m2.h.degree
1:2.5 1 0.5 2 495 1085 44.9 0.25 3.67
1:3 1 0.75 2.25 430 1150 35.7 0.28 4.10
1:2.5 1 0.75 1.75 410 1250 58.7 0.33 4.78
1:3 1 1 2 380 1320 46.9 0.35 4.85
1:3 1 1.25 1.75 365 1420 66.3 0.41 5.00

In increase in the activity of cement from 350 to 500 kg/cm² concrete strength increases: 15-25% for the composition of 1:2,5, at 16-30% - for the composition of 1:3

 

Water cement vermiculite-sand concrete for these compositions is from 12 to 22% (by weight) and is in inverse proportion to their volume weights.

 

Concrete with a high consumption of cement have frost. For example, samples of the concrete composition 1:2,5 withstand 50 cycles of standard tests of 1:4 - 25 cycles.

 

Concretes with low cement (less than 450 kg/1m³ concrete) non-frost resistant and are destroyed after 4 - 7 cycles of testing.

 

For the cement-sand-vermiculite solutions used cement grades M-400-M-500, vermiculite fraction 0,6-10 mm.

 

Preparation of the solution should be made directly to the vicinity of a blade or screw mixers, and with small volumes of works - by hand in metal or wooden boxes of a 40-50 L.

 

Cooked mortar mix should be used no later than 30 min., After mixing. Laying mixture is done by hand compaction Platform vibrators.

 

Obtaining a uniform thickness is provided for pre-installation lighthouses and leveling the surface under the rule.

Hardening of the solution must occur at positive temperatures. After 7 days the surface layer is aligned with the grinders.

 

Investigation of thermal conductivity of cement-vermiculite solutions shows that they are in 4 - 6 times lower than the cement-sand.

 

As already noted earlier, vermiculite has a high fire resistance. This property has found its application for a swelling fire protective coatings (VOZP) based on vermiculite.

 

The most promising are swelling coatings with flame retardants and temperature resistance properties under the action of fire. These coatings are applied to the design of a thin layer.During the operation they perform the functions of decorative coatings. In case of fire during the action of high temperature coating bubbled, significantly increasing in volume, and forms a porous carbon layers having low thermal conductivity.

 

As a result of the research to create a swelling fire protective coatings to protect metal, wood, concrete and other structures received a number of flame retardant compositions comprising a binder, vermiculite and a number of additives.

 

In testing fire cooked weight applied manually with a layer of 1 mm and 2 mm on wood samples in the form of a rectangular bar section 30x60 mm and 150 mm long.

 

Then the samples were kept in natural conditions until constant weight. Prepared samples were subjected to fire, too in a ceramic tube.

 

For each of the four formulations was determined by mass loss of the sample after firing at a standard temperature regime (as the arithmetic mean of the test results for at least 10 samples).


Mass loss of samples that are protected by the studied compositions after firing

  Composition    Method protective 
processing
 Coating Thickness 
( mm )
  Time of fire  
impact
( min. )
 Mass loss,% 
(average of
10 samples)
1 cover 1 2 3,6
2 2 2,4
2 cover 1 2 4,7
2 2 3,1
3 cover 1 2 4,2
2 2 2,9
4 cover 1 2 3,2
2 2 1,9

Mass loss of samples averaged 2.5%, which allows one to classify data retardants tested samples to a group of slow.

 

Also conducted tests of the natural fire retardant coating by burning a standard wooden house in terms of size 1,0 x 1,0 m.

 

Three were burned down house: naked, soaked in a solution of antipyrine and the house, protected by fire-resistant vermiculite composition (thickness 1 - 2 mm). After burning 5 liters of kerosene in each of the first two houses burned down. House covered PTD on the basis of vermiculite, after full combustion of kerosene has not undergone any visible change.

 

The test results showed good quality of fire-retardant coatings on the basis of vermiculite. Thin-layer fire-retardant coating on the basis of vermiculite in the simplicity of preparing the raw materials supply and provide a reliable fire protection of wood can solve another rather important task decoration protects the wood surface.

 

A specific feature of vermiculite fire-resistant decorative coatings and finishing mortars is the brilliance of nude colored plates of vermiculite on the surface of the coating in reflected light..

 

Particularly spectacular outdoor vermiculite plaster in sunny weather, but in the interior fittings in natural and artificial light, they look quite spectacular.

 

For decorative plaster vermiculite is recommended to use white cement and alkali-resistant pigments (ocher, iron ocher, umber, etc.) in an amount of 5 - 25%. As the plasticizing additives should use air lime or other components.

 

Decorative plaster on the quality of ordinary cement can also be quite high, but its color is usually not used corresponds to the color pigment. For example, solutions with an iron minimum have a brown tinge, with ocher - greenish-gray. With the introduction of 5% pigment cement plaster has a soft, pastel color, with 15-25% - has a bright, saturated color.


Recommended composition decorative solutions:


The solution of 1:2:6
Cement 200 kg
Lime 250 kg
Vermiculite 1m3
Water 700 l
Pigment 20-40 kg

The solution of 1:3
Colored cement 380 kg
Vermiculite 1m3
Water 400 l
Plasticizer 0,2 kg

Manufacturing Company "Ukrainian Vermiculite Group" worked closely with many academic and industrial organizations. We have obtained some experience and knowledge associated with the use of vermiculite in various fields - particularly in construction.


Conclusion:

 

Given that the thermal conductivity of swollen vermiculite is 0,04 - 0,062 W / mK, and the brickwork - 0,8 W / mK, and concrete - 1,45 W / mK, it turns out that a layer of vermiculite filling in 20cm of thermal protection equivalent to a brick wall thickness of 1,5 m or 2m-thick concrete wall.

 

A layer of vermiculite in the attic ceilings 5cm thick reduces heat loss by 75% and a thickness of 7.5 cm - at 85% and a thickness of 10 cm - at 92%. A layer of "warm" cement-vermiculite plaster thickness of 2.5 cm may replace a layer of cement-sand mortar in 10-15cm.

 

When the thickness of the cement-vermiculite plaster layer up to 3 cm thick brick wall can be reduced by 25%. Application of cement-vermiculite mortar on brick walls allows poluchitekonomiyu brick in the amount of 0,25 m3 per 1 m3 of masonry, with a sound absorption coefficient of vermiculite plaster is 0,15-0,3, while ordinary sand plaster it is 0,015-0,02.

From this it follows that the use of "warm" plaster for facing surfaces of walls can provide significant economic benefits by reducing the thickness of the wall.

 

Fire-retardant efficiency vermiculite solutions 4 times higher than the sand. Limit of fire resistance of roofs and ceilings, equal to 1,5 h, is provided with a layer thickness of vermiculite solution of 8 mm. Armocement plate 20 mm thick with a layer of vermiculite fireproofing solution of 13 mm have a limit of fire resistance of up to 10 hours.


Thanks to its properties vermiculite CONSTRUCTION
Appropriate to apply:


• for the insulation of walls, roofs, floors, foundations and basements of various buildings;

• for filling voids, between wall spaces, the attic floor;

• as a filler in mortar, plasters, cement slurry;

• the production of heat-resistant fire-resistant concrete;

• for isolation of cold rooms, vaults furnaces;

• for sound insulation of apartments, offices, chambers test aircraft and automobile engines, for sound absorption in cinemas, etc.;

• for fire protection of metal, concrete, wood and other structures;

• for decorative facades of buildings and interiors.